You Need to Eat MORE FAT in the Morning (You Store Less as Body Fat)
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I often get asked, “is it better to eat fat in the morning, or at night?” In this video, we’ll take a look at a study that investigated exactly this, and we’ll break down how much fat you should consume at different points in the day! I’ll see you in the COMMENTS!!
Insulin Variations – BMC Medical Genomics
This study found that the circadian gene, PER1, was prominent among the genes with significantly higher expression in the morning versus the afternoon or evening, with up to a 10-fold change in some patients for PER1 mRNA expression
*The PER1 protein is important to the maintenance of circadian rhythms in cells, and may also play a role in the development of cancer. This gene is a member of the period family of genes. It is expressed with a daily oscillating circadian rhythm, or an oscillation that cycles with a period of approximately 24 hours*
Genes that were positively correlated with PER1 mRNA levels included those involved in fructose and mannose metabolism and glycolysis (PFKFB, FUK, MPI, PFKM):
A number of genes encode enzymes in glucose, mannose and fructose metabolism (PFKFB3, FUK, MPI, PFKM), with high expression levels in the morning and a decline in the afternoon through the evening, following the trend of PER1
Conversely, “fuel accumulation” genes, such as those involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (HMGCR, HMGSC1), LDL receptor (LDLR), and glucose transport (GLUTS 1, 3, 5 and 14) have low levels in the morning and rise in the afternoon (negatively, correlated with PER1 mRNA.)
Hypothesized that diurnal rhythm in human adipose underlies the transition from a catabolic, energy-releasing state in the morning to an anabolic, energy-storing state in the evening
Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group
The great majority of glucose and fructose is converted to fructose 6-phosphate upon entering a cell
*Once fructose is consumed it is then converted to fructose 6-phosphate within cells
Mannose-6 phosphate isomerase (MPI), alternately phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) is an enzyme which facilitates the interconversion of fructose 6-phosphate (F6P)
The PFKM gene provides instructions for making one piece (the PFKM subunit) of an enzyme called phosphofructokinase
Specifically, the enzyme converts fructose-6-phosphate to a molecule called fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (just further along the conversion path to ultimately being stored)
As the study stated, “fuel accumulation” genes, such as those involved in glucose & fructose transport (GLUTS 1, 3, 5 and 14) have low levels in the morning and rise in the afternoon
GLUT5 is a fructose transporter expressed on the apical border of enterocytes in the small intestine
GLUT5 allows for fructose to be transported from the intestinal lumen into the enterocyte by facilitated diffusion due to fructose’s high concentration in the intestinal lumen