This “Anti-Keto” Study Made me SO MAD! (Keto Makes You Fat)
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people love it when I get mad it’s not my nature but what the heck I’m gonna get mad for you all right the reason I’m mad today is because people love to cherry-pick portions of studies just to push their agenda okay in this case they’re anti Kido agenda right okay here’s the thing this study that I’m going to talk about makes a mention that mice get obese when they do keto long term whoa you can imagine that people had a heyday with that they took that little section and they said guess what if you do keto long term you’re gonna be obese so we’re gonna cover this study we’re gonna talk about the mice model and why doing studies on mice it doesn’t really really truly apply tit for tat when it comes down to Quito then we’re gonna talk about the definition of short term versus long term with the study then we’re gonna talk about what this study was actually about because spoiler alert this study was Pro keto it was a good study a great study there’s just some issues with it and it’s not the study itself it’s the people cherry-picking what they want to pick from it so anyhow this study did find secondarily that mice would get fat if they did keto long-term does this mean that we should stop doing keto altogether because we might get fat well here’s another news flash for you if you eat 10,000 calories a day even on keto you will get fat anyhow that’s not what the study was even about the study was about something called gamma delta T cells which is an immune system function anti-inflammatory process in the visceral fat which we’ll touch on a little bit later but that’s scientific stuff and I don’t want to lose me on this video when he keeps simple make sure you do hit that red subscribe button in extreme bell-like on we got daily videos coming out I’m not always mad and also a big thank you to you Gino matcha if you drink matcha tea if you’re into matcha this is the cream of the crop one hundred eighty year old Japanese matcha company hands down the highest quality matcha that is out there so I put a link down below for anyone to get a special discount if you are a subscriber or you like to watch my videos this is my way and you see this way of saying thank you for subscribing to this channel and being a part of it now let’s get mad again let’s first touch on the problematic issues when we do mouse model studies especially on the ketogenic diet let me first say I reference a lot of mouse studies okay they are very applicable they work but it all depends on the whole situation in this particular case we have to remember mice did not evolve to eat a ketogenic diet whereas humans actually did okay humans have large brains which can run on ketones mice have little funny little mouse brains okay I don’t see humans choose actually I do I was gonna say I don’t see humans choosing to run on a wheel but we do run on treadmills so I don’t know maybe our brains are small anyhow point is is that mice are running predominantly on glucose they eat little bits of seed the little bits of grass and little bits of grains okay here’s the thing they are not designed to be ketogenic so that brings us to case two okay with this study that they had to get the mice to eat a 0.1% carbohydrate diet that is pretty much zero carb okay that’s pretty aggressive and not realistic for most of the people doing a ketogenic diet a separate note I will say that if you are not getting some gut diversity some bacteria some different prebiotic fibers now and then you probably are doing yourself a disservice and you might have issues later on down the line with inflammation but that’s neither here nor there the third and the biggest thing that we need to be paying attention to is that it is a well-known research phenomenon that mice will eat to obesity on a ketogenic diet if you put food in front of a mouse it will eat it okay if I were to lock a human in a container and force them to eat 20,000 calories of coconut oil and they didn’t get fat that person would be an absolute freakazoid you cannot do that okay so with a mouse if you allow it to eat ad libitum what this study did it allowed them to eat however much they want on a ketogenic diet yes they’ll get fat duh they’re eating as much as they want what’s even funnier is that in one week of this ketogenic diet these mice ate to obesity and got obese it took them a week and they got obese okay point is they over ate a lot now let’s jump over to what this study references as short-term and a long-term okay is this plays a big part to in this case one week was considered short-term one week in the human world that’s barely enough to even get you into ketosis okay and then three months was considered long-term that’s not exactly long-term okay now frontiers in endocrinology 2019 we have a human human studies okay that show that after two years on the ketogenic diet there is still dramatic improvements in the metabolism showing that in human studies if we’re doing keto for two years we’re still getting better we’re getting healthier we’re decreasing the symptoms of metabolic syndrome however if we were to look at this short term study as long-term it would indicate that we’re having all kinds of issues anyhow point is let’s talk about what the study really was after this is the meat and potatoes of it this study was Pro keto this study was about how gamma delta T cells increase in the visceral fat when you do keto here’s what’s wild gamma delta T cells are a part of the immune system that reduce inflammation they are good we want an increase in them so what they saw with this study is that mice even when they gained weight in the first week they got obese in the first week even in that first week they still had an improvement in gamma delta T cells that reduced inflammation so despite getting really fat in the first week they still got healthier whoa but then three months down the line of getting fatter and fatter and fatter then they saw the gamma delta T cells start to decrease an inflammation increase well guess who comes to the rescue there people love to read that and they say oh three months on a ketogenic diet and these mice their inflammation went through the roof and their gamma delta T cell activity went down and their visceral fat went up their obese Kito’s going to hurt you it’s going to destroy you yeah of course they’re gonna say that because these mice got so morbidly obese at some point you’re going to get unhealthy you could take someone eating the perfect macronutrient ratio you could take someone eating the perfect crystal clear ketogenic diet to a tee but if they eat so much that they become 900 pounds they’re going to have inflammation they’re going to be sick it does not matter because oh be city is inflammatory but what’s wild is even just one week of being obese actually the ketones were still able to supersede that and cause a positive response so what’s funny is that if you take mice in another scenario like in a study that was published in the journal Cell they found that the mice had an increase in lifespan by 13 percent on a ketogenic diet if they did not get obese so when you take mice in other studies and you put them on a ketogenic diet but you control how much they eat and don’t let them get obese guess what it improves their health it improves their metabolism and guess what they live longer who would have thought so you see what the research world is all about the research is good it’s the people that interpret it and like to push their agendas for whatever direction they want to go because they play on the ignorance that people aren’t going to actually read a study and I hate to break it to you but 98% of the people aren’t gonna take the time they’re you to study because of two reasons one they’re busy and they don’t have time and they don’t want to hear it but to a lot of things these studies you have to pay to access them and not everyone has 50 bucks to go access a document right point is is you need to rely on information that is put out there by trusted sources that can decipher this this study was Pro Kido it found that ketones improve anti-inflammatory systems within the visceral fat end rant please don’t forget to hit that like and subscribe button and as always keep it locked in here for daily videos
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What are γδ T cells?
γδ T cells are a visceral fat “tissue resident” group of anti-inflammatory white blood cells. “Tissue resident” means that, unlike many other white blood cells that circulate throughout the body, γδ T cells stay put in their organ, which happens to be the unhealthy visceral fat that stored within the abdominal cavity near the liver. γδ T cells are anti-inflammatory, in part, because they can recruit a better-known group of anti-inflammatory immune cells, Tregs, to visceral fat. In short, γδ T cells decrease inflammation in visceral fat and decrease the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines released by visceral fat that contribute to systemic inflammation and metabolic syndrome.
The mouse model
Mice, and particularly the mice used in this study, are a problematic model for 3 reasons:
(i) Unlike big-brain humans, mice did not evolve to eat a high-fat keto-style diet. Their metabolism is primed for carbohydrates. It’s actually impressive that keto diet studies have previously shown any benefit in mice at all.
(ii) Because of (i), mice aren’t good at producing ketone bodies as compared to humans. In this study, carbohydrates provided 0.1% of the keto diet group’s energy. This is not representative of a human keto diet (unless carnivore). Even in humans, long-term restriction of all carbohydrates could cause adverse effects secondary to all fiber restriction and consequent negative shifts in the gut microbiome. This is an active area of inquiry.
(iii) Unlike humans, mice overeat to the point of obesity on keto diets. This is, perhaps, the most important model limitation to note with regard to this paper. It is a well-recognized phenomenon that some mice allowed to feed ad libitum on high-fat keto diets overeat and become obese. The mice used for this study were (intentionally) of that sort. Even in the first week of feeding, the ketogenic mice gained more weight than the control mice and tripled their fat mass. Over the “long-term,” defined in this study as ~3 months, this obesogenic effect accumulated).
What is short-term; what is long-term?
In this study, short term is 1 week; long-term is 2-3 months. When used colloquially and with respect to humans, “long-term” tends to imply years, if not decades. We already have published data on “long-term” (2-year) ketogenic diets suggesting ketogenic diets are beneficial for metabolic health, at least in certain patient populations:
This paper found that, short-term (1 week), a ketogenic diet in mice caused a decrease in inflammation that was associated with an increase in the number of γδ T cells in the visceral fat. This beneficial effect occurred despite the fact that, even over 1 week, the ketogenic mice gained fat. This is consistent with a model in which anti-inflammatory effects of ketones overpowered the pro-inflammatory effects of 1 week of weight (and visceral fat) gain.
The paper found that long-term (2-3 months) a ketogenic diet in mice induced obesity and an associated increase in the amount of visceral fat decrease in the number of γδ T cells in that visceral fat. This caused an increase in inflammation and a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype.
Importantly, it was the obesity that most likely caused the adverse health consequences, as other studies using mice that didn’t become obese on a ketogenic diet have reported such results as a 13% increase in median lifespan and increase in skeletal muscle and cognitive health span:
*The authors of this paper are not attempting to “keto-bash” nor suggest that long-term ketogenic diets in humans are unhealthy. This paper is about the novel role γδ T cells in ketosis.
Nicholas Norwitz – Oxford PhD Researcher and Harvard Med Student: