How Fasting Affects Aging | Telomere Research

How Fasting Affects Aging | Telomere Research

How Fasting Affects Aging | Telomere Research

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by doing a few longer fasts now and then so we’re talking things like two or three day fasts you very very well could be increasing your lifespan and this isn’t just by saying you’re eating less and you’re just cells or healthier and stuff like no no there’s actual like DNA cool DNA evidence that shows that fasting and calorie restriction through fasting for at least longer periods of time legitimately can make it so that you live longer and it’s all happening through the process of telomeres so I’m gonna get scientific and I’m gonna start talking about DNA and some crazy stuff but it’s all gonna make sense so please make sure you stick with me through the entirety of this video you are tuned into the Internet’s leading performance nutrition and health channel new videos coming out every single Tuesday Friday and Sunday at 7 a.m. Pacific time and a bunch of other videos peppered out throughout the week in between also make sure you head on over to Haile calm so you can check out the premium performance apparel that I’m always wearing in my videos alright so quickly I have to give an overview of what a telomere is and what happens when cells go through they’re multiplying process and they’re dividing process and just what’s happening in your body okay we’re continually replacing old cells all the time like literally millions of times per second like our cells are always dying and reproducing and multiplying and being replaced it’s just it’s a crazy bit of chaos and what happens is we have these things called telomeres and these telomeres protect our DNA so our DNA is what dictates how a cell divides or how it changes it dictates everything in our life it’s our blueprint right so what ends up happening is these telomeres end up getting shorter and can no longer protect the cell anymore protect the DNA so it allows us to age I know this doesn’t make sense right now but let me give you an analogy think of your shoelaces okay you have your shoelaces and you have the little plastic cap that’s at the end of it if that plastic cap begins to wear down eventually you’re left with a shoelace that’s going to start to fray and as that shoelace phrase more and more it can no longer do its job it can no longer hold your shoe together or tie your shoe nice and tight well telomeres quite literally work almost the same way not with your shoelaces but with your DNA see the telomeres shorten every single time that a cell divides or multiplies so millions of times every second this is happening our telomeres are slowly getting shorter and shorter and shorter and shorter and eventually they’re gonna get so short to the point that our DNA is going to be susceptible to all the things that are in our bodies all the free radicals all the toxins so I want you to think of these telomeres as almost decoys they’re almost a shell for the DNA they’re built up in the same structure the same things as our DNA but they don’t function quite the same as DNA it’s their job that just be a decoy so that when all the free radicals and all the toxins are coming at the DNA it’s the telomeres that take the hit and they shorten every single time that happens so what we want to start understanding in the world of fasting in the world of calorie restriction is how this affects our telomeres because as I go through this video I’ll be explaining how the telomeres can actually relinked in and all this crazy stuff but first I have to reference a couple of studies now full disclaimer these are animal studies but they still apply in terms of the research surrounding telomeres because it’s the only way that we can really look at a full lifespan at least this day and age okay so the first study was published in the journal PLoS ONE okay this study took a look at newborn mice okay they were divided into two groups one group just how to normal eat whenever you want diet the other group restricted their calories by 40% okay what they found is that the group that had restricted their calories had a significant slowdown in the reduction of their telomere length so basically their telomeres did not get shorter as fast as the other group did also their lifespan was significantly better and also their rate of tumors was significantly less about 38 percent versus 78% so right there and we know that calorie restriction definitely has an effect on telomeres at least in mice but then there is another study that was published in the journal Nature this one took a look at rhesus monkeys okay and the reason that this one’s interesting is because it took a look at just another animal model that still of course has telomeres so what they did is they restricted calories in one group and didn’t in another after 19 years the signs of aging and overall death just started to come into this rhesus monkeys population for this study they found again after these 19 years that those that didn’t the calorie restriction had a death rate of 37% those that did do the calorie restriction ended up having a death rate of 13% significantly less instance of death in the group that was consuming significantly less calories so where does this all tie in with fasting and how does this all work with humans like what do we need to be paying attention to and what do we need to do well first we have to know that there is an enzyme an enzyme known as telomerase okay telomerase is a very powerful enzyme it’s one of the only things if not the only thing in the body that can actually relink thin telomeres so we do actually have something built in an enzyme built-in within our body that can rebuild the plastic tip at the end of the shoelace just imagine if your shoelaces that we’re getting frayed could magically regrow the plastic tip that essentially is what telomerase allows our body to do the problem is that not all cells produce telomerase in fact only a few of them do so we’re already limited with the number of cells that produce telomerase but to add insult to injury as we get older the cells that do produce this amazing enzyme produce less of it so essentially as we get older we have less and less and less and less telomerase there to help rebuild telomeres until finally the telomeres just shorten all the way to the point that were susceptible to so much damage and we essentially die but this dark cloud really does have a silver lining you see you’ve probably heard of stem cells before see stem cells go around they secrete proteins that promote healing okay but stem cells also produce a large amount of telomerase okay so you might be wondering you know you maybe know someone that has gone out and gotten a stem cell injection well the reason they get a stem cell injection is because stem cells grow fast they multiply fast and they secrete proteins that help encourage growth and repair so yeah they’re a very good thing but again a lot of people don’t realize that they also produce telomerase so this is a very powerful thing we have a good amount of stem cells we have a good amount of cells that are producing this amazing enzyme that Lakes ultimately lets us live longer now something really interesting happens inside our bodies when cells die when cells die they produce what are known as daughter cells and what daughter cells are practically carbon copies of the cells that just died from a DNA standpoint so when we look at a particular cell that dies suddenly another cell forms that is just like it this is a really cool form of multiplying known as differentiation now the cool thing is stem cells remember secrete a lot of telomerase so when stem cells die they create daughter cells that also produce telomerase so the trick is to have a good amount of stem cells and we can consistently have a production of daughter stem cells that produce telomerase that increase the length of our telomeres that make us live longer now before you go thinking that you have to go and get a stem cell injection to make this happen let me explain something else stem cells have a very unique ability to duplicate themselves it’s a process known as self renewal very unique kind of thing so stem cells can actually just multiply through self renewal create another one and then those ones that just multiplied have daughters when they die so we have this nice ever flowing amount of stem cells if we truly take care of ourselves and implement the right kinds of things now one thing that is worth noting is that whenever a cell dies and creates a daughter cell it’s going to create essentially a carbon copy of what that cell is like so that means if we already have weak cells that have super short telomeres well when those die those are just going to produce other cells that already have short telomeres or DNA that’s kind of short and or DNA that’s exposed and that just means that we’re just exacerbating this cycle we’re just creating more of an old thing we need more of a new thing so here’s where fasting comes in and I know it’s taken me a while to get here but this is really really cool stuff when we go through a period of prolonged fasting like over 24 hours more like 48 72 hours what happens is we have an increase in the self renewal process of what are called Hamada poetic stem cells these are the stem cells that matter so fasting encourages the self renewal process so remember I told you that stem cells can magically just populate into another stem cell well fasting encourages that and there was a study at USC that actually found that so if we have that occur then we’re in a very good spot we are multiplying our stem cells quite literally but here’s where it gets really cool we you go into your refeed when you actually break your fast you have a massive surplus of differentiation happening so a lot of those stem cells that would die go ahead and create daughter cells during that time so you just created a bunch of stem cells during your fast and then you ate a bunch and that caused them to form daughters and the ones that died and then you fast again and it’s a vicious cycle or not a vicious cycle but a tremendous cycle you’ve basically created a process where you create new stem cells through the self renewal process and then you refeed causing this differentiation that produces daughter cells so these daughter cells of course produce telomerase and you can start doing the math you can increase the amount of telomerase activity in your body by doing fasts or by restricting calories so restricting calories is a little bit more of a preservation thing longer fasts where you actually go periods of time without food is actually a process where you can actually turn back time a little bit and possibly increase the length of those telomeres that protect your DNA now I don’t know if anyone’s really doing it or looking at studies of this but this ultimately you could hypothesize that you could actually reverse aging through a fasting process so it’s kind of interesting stuff anyhow this is all new interesting stuff that’s coming out in the world of genetics and DNA and telomeres we’re seeing lots and lots of stuff surrounding it honestly it’s the DNA that makes up everything about us so we probably should start paying some attention to it and how food or lack thereof affects it as always make sure you put your comments your questions down in the comment section and I’ll do my best to answer them in the next Q&A video that I do for this week I’ll see you soon

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How Fasting Affects Aging | Telomere Research – Thomas Delauer

Fasting & Telomeres – Study

From the journal PLoS One, researchers used young mice – just three months old – and reduced their caloric intake by 40% before observing them until the end of their life cycle

The researchers found that a calorie-restricted diet lowered the telomere shortening rate when compared to mice fed a normal diet, which led to a 20% increase in lifespan

More specifically, they found that when mice are fed half their normal number of calories, they survive to either an extended lifespan of 32 to 45 months or – better yet – a maximal lifespan of 40 to 53 months

Fasting & Telomeres – Study in Monkeys

Another study, published in the journal Nature, found that a calorie-restricted diet would produce similar results in rhesus monkeys

After an 11-year span, the calorie-restricted monkeys had lower triglyceride and insulin levels compared to the free-feeding controls – they also showed better neuronal activity, higher energy levels, and reduced body fat

In 2009, a full 19 years after the experiment began, the control animals began dying from age-related diseases, with a death rate of 37%

The calorie-restricted monkeys, on the other hand, had a death rate of 13% – for reference, rhesus monkeys typically live from 27 to 40 years

Why Does Fasting Increase Telomeres (Stem Cells)

There’s an enzyme called telomerase that can re-lengthen telomeres that are shortened during DNA replication

Unfortunately, not every cell in your body expresses telomerase, and as we get older the cells that do express telomerase express less of it

Over time, our ability to replenish our cells diminishes, our function declines, and we die – however, we have some cellular saviors called stem cells

Stem cells are the sentinel cells of our body – when our cells incur damage, stem cells swoop in and secrete proteins that initiate the repair process

When our cells die, they give birth to daughter cells that can replace the cells we lose through a process called differentiation

The great thing about stem cells is that they express telomerase, so they tend to maintain long telomeres

Additionally, cells that are born directly from stem cells likely have longer telomeres than cells that aren’t, based on the simple fact that they’re one cell division away from exposure to high levels of telomerase

However, we lose stem cells as we grow older, primarily through apoptosis and senescence – but the good thing about stem cells is that they aren’t a one-trick pony

In addition to differentiation in to other types of cells, they can also duplicate themselves through a process called self-renewal, creating more stem cells

These new stem cells also express telomerase, so their daughter cells will also have long telomeres

References

1) Why Fasting May Be the Key to a Long, Healthy Life. (n.d.). Retrieved from
2) Caloric restriction has a protective effect on chromosomes. (2018, December 11). Retrieved from
3) Fasting Might Make Our Cells More Resilient to Stress – h+ Media. (2015, March 30). Retrieved from
4) Caloric restriction reduces age-related and all-cause mortality in rhesus monkeys. (2014, April 1). Retrieved from
5) Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Synergizes with Calorie Restriction to Increase Health Span and Extend Mouse Longevity. (2013, January 22). Retrieved from
6) Fasting, longevity, and telomeres: The regenerating effects of prolonged fasting. (2018, April 24). Retrieved from
7)
8) A Periodic Diet that Mimics Fasting Promotes Multi-System Regeneration, Enhanced Cognitive Performance, and Healthspan. (n.d.). Retrieved from
9) Fasting boosts stem cells? regenerative capacity. (2018, May 3). Retrieved from
10) Scientists find way to increase length of human telomeres. (2015, January 26). Retrieved from p

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