Basics of Fat Loss | Simple Science that You can Use

Basics of Fat Loss | Simple Science that You can Use

Basics of Fat Loss | Simple Science that You can Use

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you know when you really think about things it’s kind of crazy to think that we go from this like a stored fat in our body into energy it’s pretty wild and when you’re intermittent fasting or doing a keto diet this process of taking this and turning it into energy becomes really really important but especially when we factor in how this can just kind of disappear off of our body I mean it can literally be around your belly it can be around your entire body it can be on your legs and it just melts off but let’s talk about how this really happens specifically with fasting and a little bit surrounding the world of keto – well I don’t need this anymore hey if you’re watching this channel you are tuned into the Internet’s leading performance nutrition and fat loss channel new videos coming out every single Tuesday Friday and Sunday at 7 a.m. Pacific time specifically surrounding the world of ketosis and fasting but a bunch of other content peppered in between as well I also want to make sure you check out highly calm so you can get the premium performance apparel that I’m always wearing in my videos alright so this video is gonna be a little bit sciency but I want you to stick with me because everything’s gonna make sense I’m going to try to condense it the best that I can to make it really understandable so that you have some true motivation to keep on intermittent fasting and to keep on doing ketosis because when you know how the body works just makes things a lot more fun so what we’re gonna focus on is something known as hormone sensitive lipase hormone sensitive lipase is a specific enzyme that really allows fat burning to occur in fact scientists for a long time have said that hormone sensitive lipase is the epicenter of fat burning it is the one place that fatty acid oxidation fat breakdown can occur within the body fatty acid breakdown or fat burning cannot occur unless it is at the site of hormone sensitive lipase okay so what that means is we need this enzyme but the cool thing is is a recent science is starting to show that it’s a little bit broader than that so I’m gonna give you the full understanding now this hormone sensitive lipase is important to you if you’re fasting or you’re doing keto because it has an inverse relationship with what’s called insulin okay insulin is the absorptive hormone so whenever we eat we have a spike in insulin okay whenever our insulin levels are low this amazing hormones sort of lipase is really high and whenever our insulin levels are high for months instead of lipase is low so even if we’re in a calorie deficit we could be in a situation where if our insulin levels are consistently elevated it’s really hard to activate this fat-burning enzyme so let’s take a look a little bit more at how it works so when you don’t have insulin present you have another hormone known as glucagon glucagon encourages the breakdown of proteins it encourages the breakdown of fats it encourages the release of glycogen basically it is the burning hormone without insulin glucagon is released but there’s something even more important we want to focus on and those are catecholamines okay so we’re talking adrenaline we’re talking epinephrine norepinephrine these things that we think only have a role when we get nervous but you see when we’re fasting or were in a calorie deficit or we’re working out we have an abundance of catecholamines we have a lot of adrenaline and epinephrine well guess what the adrenaline and the epinephrine in conjunction with the glucagon they activate hormone sensitive lipase you see they phosphorylate or month sensitive lipase now phosphorylation is where we’re basically altering the structure of something through kind of protein manipulation by adding a phosphorus molecule in other words we’re just changing it enough so that it becomes activated and when hormone sensitive lipase becomes activated fat burning is occurring so we want to activate this you can start putting it together fasting catecholamines epinephrine equals the activation of the hormone sensitive lipase equals fat burning okay but we’re gonna break it down a little bit more now what we have to remember is that hormone sensitive lipase is called hormone sensitive lipase for a reason it is hormone sensitive you see lipase literally just stands for an enzyme lipase means a enzyme that breaks down lipids it breaks down fats but hormone sensitive lipase is a lie page that is very dependent on being activated by specific hormones in this case glucagon and epinephrine just to name a couple now the way that this whole process works is you go into fasting or you going to keto or you go into a workout and you have a higher degree of these catecholamines and what these catecholamines do is they act upon something known as beta adrenergic receptors okay beta adrenergic receptors are what received the catecholamines to start this whole cascading signal to start lipolysis to start fat-burning now beta adrenergic receptors maybe you’ve heard of beta blockers before the pharmaceutical okay beta blockers are given to people that have blood pressure issues they’re given to a lot of times military snipers they’re given to people that are going to be anxious and can’t have the effects of the catecholamines so normally like adrenaline would give you the shakes right like too much adrenaline or too much epinephrine would make you shaking you and make you kind of freak out well beta blockers stop that process because they block the beta adrenergic receptors so they make it so catecholamines are still existent but they’re not acting upon the beta adrenergic receptors this entire process of activating the beta adrenergic receptors turns on the process of activating protein kinase a it turns on the phosphorylation process now protein kinase a although a very complex enzyme I’m not gonna spend a lot of time breaking it down I’m just gonna tell you in this case protein kinase a is very important because protein kinase a kinase a se that suffix means it’s an enzyme protein kinase a means it goes and it breaks down or changes certain proteins in this case it changes proteins that are very important to fat-burning okay so how it works is inside a fat cell okay and our adipose tissue our fat cells it’s a lipid right well inside that cell in the cytoplasm of that cell lives a dormant friend that we know of called hormone sensitive lipase he’s hanging out inside a fat cell ready to rock and roll but he’s hormone sensitive he’s not activated until he’s actually acted upon by a hormone so what happens is he’s protected inside the cell and on the outside of this lipid there’s something known as peri livid okay this parent lipid is also something that protects and stops the potential activation of that hormone sensitive lipase okay so now that we’ve activated protein kinase a this goes along and it phosphorylates both peri Lipan and hormone sensitive lipase essentially at the same time what this means is it changes the structure and breaks them down enough so that the Perry lip and no longer shields the lipid and allows the hormone sensitive lipase to come out and do its job so hormone sensitive lipase this master fat burner that’s just waiting on reserve to get activated he’s like the reserve forces like the reserve military just waiting to get called upon he’s sitting there now perilymph and is deactivated because it’s been phosphorylated and we can actually activate hormone sensitive lipase and thus begins fat burning so now the fat loss process has started we can look more into the actual triglyceride breakdown and what’s actually happening when it comes down to energy okay so we used to think that it all was hormone sensitive lipase like if you watch any videos if you watch listen to me podcasts about fat burning they’re all going to talk about hormone sensitive lipase researchers are even going to talk about hormone sensitive lipase but it wasn’t until about 2004 that researchers started to discover that it was beyond hormone sensitive lipase there was more enzymes that actually made it more of a three-step process to burn fat specifically when it came down to body fat you see hormone sensitive lipase was studied a lot because it acted upon a lot of different substrates see it didn’t just act upon skeletal and intramuscular triglycerides like fat cells like that it acted upon cholesterol steroid hormones all these other kinds of fat related things so HSL has a high substrate affinity it works for a lot of different things but when we start looking at fat cells and actually breaking down intramuscular triglycerides and skeletal fat and that lower skeletal muscle fat that kind of whole area there then we realize that there’s something else called adipose triglyceride lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase is also an enzyme lipase adipose triglyceride lipase takes the fat from basically the storage fat cell and starts to break it down it starts to break it down and you take a triglyceride which is a storage form of fat okay and you have tri glyceride so you’ve got tri 3 fatty acids bound to a glycerol molecule that’s what makes a triglyceride so adipose triglyceride lipase takes that triglyceride and it takes it and it breaks it down into a dye glycerol so you’ve gone from a triglyceride into a diglyceride okay so basically from here we have released one fatty acid and now we need another enzyme we need diglyceride lipase to break down that diglyceride okay we’ve gone from a triglyceride to a diglyceride so a new enzyme comes in and this is more hormone sensitive lipase plays a role hormone sensitive lipase can act upon that diglyceride lipase a lot easier so then it’s broken down into one more thing monoglycerides okay so basically now you’ve taking a triglyceride broken off one fatty acid now you’ve taken a diglyceride broken off another fatty acid so you’re left with one fatty acid and a glycerol molecule so now we have monoglyceride lipase that comes in and it’s only job is to separate that one last fatty acid from the glycerol so the fatty acid breaks away and the glycerol breaks away and they both go and they do their thing fat burning has now occurred the glycerol goes to the liver and believe it or not actually gets converted into glucose yes fat still turns into glucose because that glycerol goes through the gluconeogenesis pathway where it creates sugar or carbohydrate from its own storage form so glycerol yes still actually can convert into glycogen it can still convert into glucose it’s going through gluconeogenesis but anyway the fatty acid that’s left is the one that ends up getting converted into ketones or it gets converted into whatever or is used directly by the skeletal muscle in a fat adapted person so essentially what we’ve broken down now is that it’s not just form on sensitive lipase we used to think that it was purely the catecholamines acting upon HSL but now we know that it’s the catecholamines to activate the adipose triglycerides and then also act upon the hormone sensitive lipase so essentially what we’ve concluded here is that fasting and the release of catecholamines like through coffee drinking yes caffeine through intense workouts through ketosis and through fasting can have a double-whammy effect on actually mobilizing and allowing the breakdown of fat to occur now this is a very very very complex topic that we could go into a lot of detail on but this is a general summary so in short when someone asks you if calories matter when you’re fasting you can say yes they do but I can promise you that I’m burning more fat you my fasting state time after time then you are in between your meals as always make sure you’re keeping it locked in here in my channel if you have ideas for future videos or you have comets put them down in the comment section below I’ll see you soon

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Basics of Fat Loss | Simple Science that You can Use – Thomas DeLauer

HSL

Hormone sensitive lipase is a complex chemically structured enzyme that acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of fat in your body

The levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in your body are inversely proportional to the serum levels of insulin – what this means is that as the levels of HSL decrease, the insulin levels in your blood increase

Simply put, it’s what burns your fat deposits

The only site for regulation of fatty acid oxidation is at the level of hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue (more later)

Under fasting conditions, with minimal insulin in the blood, glucagon promotes formation of the phosphorylated, active form of hormone-sensitive lipase

When epinephrine is present, it further shifts the equilibrium to active hormone-sensitive lipase, increasing the hydrolysis of triglycerides to produce free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol

The glycerol is carried to the liver, where it enters gluconeogenesis, while the FFA are carried on serum albumin to the tissues where they are catabolized for energy

The liver uses some of the energy from fat mobilization to support gluconeogenesis

Adipose Triglyceride Lipase

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the first lipase known to hydrolyze triacylglycerols in rat adipose tissue (1988) until the identification of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in 2004

While HSL could catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and diacylglycerides as well as various cholesterol ester species, ATGL showed high substrate specificity for triacylglycerides

To date, three major lipases have been identified: Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) performs the first step of TG hydrolysis, generating diglycerides (DGs) and FAs

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) performs the second step and hydrolyzes DGs, generating monoglycerides (MGs) and FAs

In contrast to ATGL, HSL exhibits a broader substrate specificity, also hydrolyzing TGs, cholesteryl esters, MGs, and retinyl esters in addition to DGs

Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) is selective for MGs and generates glycerol and the third FA – thus, lipolysis constitutes a coordinated three-step process catalyzed by three different enzymes, which degrade TG into glycerol and FAs

End

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is presumed to be essential for lipolysis, which is defined as the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipocytes

Lipolysis is under the control of various hormones and cytokines in adipocytes – Lipolytic hormones such as catecholamines and ACTH stimulate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which in turn phosphorylates hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin in adipocytes

References

1) Hormone-Sensitive Lipase – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Retrieved from
2) Hormone-sensitive lipase. (n.d.). Retrieved from
3) Ruiz G , et al. (n.d.). Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Effect of fasting, oligomycin and iodoacetamide. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from
4) What is Hormone-Sensitive Lipase? (n.d.). Retrieved from
5) Lipolysis in the Absence of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase. (2002, December 1). Retrieved from
6) Perilipin – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Retrieved from
7) Perilipin Promotes Hormone-sensitive Lipase-mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis via Phosphorylation-dependent and -independent Mechanisms. (n.d.). Retrieved from
8) The Phosphorylation of Serine 492 of Perilipin A Directs Lipid Droplet Fragmentation and Dispersion. (n.d.). Retrieved from
9) Elkins DA and Spurlock DM. (n.d.). Phosphorylation of perilipin is associated with indicators of lipolysis in Holstein cows. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from
10) Schweiger M , et al. (n.d.). Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are the major enzymes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol catabolism. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from
11) Kershaw EE , et al. (n.d.). Adipose triglyceride lipase: function, regulation by insulin, and comparison with adiponutrin. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from
12) Adipose Triglyceride Lipase – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Retrieved from e

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