Muscle Growth: Fast Reps vs. Slow Reps- Thomas DeLauer
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I don’t know about you but I don’t have time to spend all day in a gym honestly I don’t have any desire to spend all day in a gym either ever since having a kid oh I am always trying to find ways that I can improve my workouts or get the most out of a workout or the most out of my lifestyle in general to get the best bang for the buck if it makes a workout harder or more effective in a shorter amount of time and I’m all for it and I want to introduce to you some interesting research and science in the world of biology that’s starting to show how we can get more out of our workouts in a very easy way and even improve our protein synthesis – hey if you haven’t already make sure you hit that subscribe button that subscribe button is gonna get you three videos a week on Tuesday Friday and Sunday at 7 a.m. Pacific time on the dot and also make sure you hit that little bell so you can turn on notifications whenever I go live also make sure you check out Haile calm for the latest and greatest deals on Awesome apparel so what I want to address is something known as heat shock proteins and heat shock proteins are something that are a response to stress within ourselves now he shock proteins essentially got their name because they are a response to heat shock so if you expose yourself to extremely high temperature you have an increase in heat shock proteins what they’re finding is that these heat shock proteins aren’t just elevated during episodes of high heat they’re elevated whenever a cell is under stress and they’re highly reserved they’re basically set there for only when the cell is under stress and when the cells under stress these heat shock proteins are released and they do all kinds of amazing things when it comes to protecting the cell and helping the cell rebuild properly you see when we’re building a cell in our bodies formulating all the proteins to build a cell we have what is called the folding and unfolding of proteins so if you look at a cell there are different folds of proteins in it and these heat shock proteins assist in the proper folding so they assist in the proper building they’re like scaffolding for the cells so they’re very very important but again what we’re finding is that these heat shock proteins are elevated during exercise so as our bodies are forced to meet the demands of exercise these heat shock proteins elevate and protect the cell and they allow the cell to recover even faster so when we’re working out we’re exposing ourselves to massive decreases in blood flow if we have a lot of contraction of the muscle we’re also exposing ourselves to decreases in glucose and we’re exposing ourselves to all kinds other chemical reactions and lactic acid and other things that cause a chemical imbalance this is stress on the cell itself so these heat shock proteins are there to help the cell acclimate which is great but there’s also another benefit they have when it comes down to helping us build muscle you see more often than not we think that muscle building is all just about the protein that we consume and simple protein synthesis and all these really basic things and consuming more calories in yada-yada but the reality is research is starting to show that there are these little teeny things that are going on at a cellular level even in the actual muscle group that we train that make a huge difference you see heat shock proteins do something known as chaperoning and it’s just like the word implies chaperoning means the shuttling of a specific nutrient to a specific place so when these heat shock proteins are elevated it’s their job to help the cell recover so in the case of amino acids of protein what they will do is they will reach out they will grab the proteins and amino acids and bring them into the damaged tissue so let me give you example let’s say that you just trained your quadriceps really hard maybe you just did a bunch of squats okay well you’re gonna have an elevation in heat shock proteins then you go and you consume a protein shake or you have your protein or do it ever it is that you do well what’s gonna happen is the heat shock proteins are gonna see the amino acids floating through the bloodstream and they’re gonna reach out and grab them and they’re gonna chaperone them to where the damaged tissue was so those heat shock proteins literally just like the word implies they shap around the amino acids and shuttle them over to where the tissue that needs repair is this is a really cool stuff in addition to that it does some really cool stuff into genetic level – it helps what is called gene expression and gene expression is where we actually build a cell properly so you may not realize this but when you workout and you rebuild muscle fibers and you build them stronger and you build new muscle fibers and yadda-yadda sometimes you have muscle fibers and cells that are built in a kind of a dysfunctional way you see gene expression isn’t always accurate at any given time you have a number of cells that are created that are mutant they really shouldn’t have been created at all because they ended up being created in a dysfunctional way so these heat shock proteins actually provide an accurate scaffolding so that cells can be built properly and when you’re talking about building muscle cells and muscle fibers you want good quality muscle cells that are gonna be there for a lifetime you don’t want funky ones that are gonna end up just withering away and going away in the first place so this is why it’s very important to train the muscle properly so we know that overall exercise stimulates heat shock proteins but what good does that really do us if we’ve been having it happen all along and we don’t use any new science to our advantage so what I want to do now is I want to help you understand a way that you can start to train or a little thing that you can use an adjunct to your existing training to start getting more out of these heat shock proteins and start leveraging science to your advantage so this first study was published in the Journal of sports science and medicine and it took a look at cyclists and what I wanted to look at was the concentric action so what the concentric action is is for example if I were flexing my bicep or if I were it’s picking up a dumbbell when I’m flexing and picking up the dumbbell that’s the concentric movement this is the concentric movement when the dumbbell is overcoming my bicep that’s the eccentric portion so with this study looked at is it looked at cyclists going uphill the concentric action on their overall leg okay now I didn’t just look at muscles in their leg it also looked at their heart muscle and also looked at tissues in their lungs and in their kidneys but they wanted to measure what the overall increase in hsp70 s were so heat shock protein 70 s now the number at the end is really just a molecular weight ultimately doesn’t really matter in this case we’re just talking about the most popular heat shock protein that’s measured so what they found is that after exercise there was a 75% increase in heat shock proteins in the calf obviously the calf is heavily used in an uphill cycling ride so in this case we found there was an increase in heat shock proteins not a huge huge increase but enough to definitely prove that there’s gonna have to be some adaptation to occur but let’s take a look at what happens in another study when we look at the eccentric phase so this study was published in the American Journal of physiology and it took a look at eleven males and these eleven males what they had them do was go through 300 repetitions of maximal eccentric contractions okay they wanted to measure the amount of HSPs in the myofibrillar a particular part of the muscle fiber they wanted to look at what happened with these proteins in the muscle cell right then and there so what they found was pretty interesting okay they did muscle biopsies at 30 minutes post exercise but also at 4 hours 8 hours 20 four hours 96 hours and 128 hours post-exercise and they wanted to see if the heat shock proteins stayed elevated they found at the end of the exercise there was a 15 fold increase in heat shock proteins in the muscle that was acted upon 15 fold and then in the subsequent four days there was still a tenfold increase that remained so is a huge increase when you focus on the eccentric contraction a huge increase in these HSPs that chaperone proteins and amino acids for proper growth in a truly genetically efficient and accurate way this is powerful stuff now there was another study that found that literally just after one session of eccentric contractions at a submaximal level there is a 1064 percent increase in heat shock protein 70 hsp70 so again we have proof that the East inter contractions elicit more of a response on these heat shock proteins so what’s my whole reasoning behind all this well my reasoning is that there’s so much fluff out there that tells you you need to be consuming more protein you need to be doing this you need to be eating this much calories don’t you dare fast because you lose all your muscle don’t do ketosis because you’ll lose all your muscle all that stuff just doesn’t matter as much there is so much going on at a cellular in a biological level that doesn’t really have to do with the typical stuff that we’re hearing about the calories in the calories out and all of this and that you see what we have to factor in is what kind of workouts are we doing so how can you start adding eccentric movements into your workout without completely changing the entire course of what you do day to day so just like I mentioned in the last study there was a huge increase after just one session of submaximal eccentric contractions so at the end of your workout all you have to do is go through and do some eccentric movements so I would recommend each day of each given week go ahead and pick a body part that you want to do in Easton’s or contraction on if you just did a high-intensity interval training session go ahead and finish up with some eccentric contraction pull-ups it doesn’t have to do something super crazy and it doesn’t have to be ridiculously difficult but by exposing your muscle to that east centric contraction you are harnessing the power of science to really really really leverage the elevation of heat shock proteins that are gonna allow that muscle to recover in a faster way yeah we have to use we have to use science to get the most out of our workouts and it doesn’t matter whether you’re a bodybuilder whether you are someone that’s just trying to get healthy someone that’s trying to lose weight or someone that’s just biohacking and trying to have some fun this is a great way to change up your workouts and it’s a big reason why I’m such a fan of time and attention training in the first place focus on the tension on the cell on the muscle at that point in time rather than just how much weight you can schlep around because at the end of the day that’s not really what matters so I know this was a random esoteric topic but to be completely honest this is the kind of stuff that we have to learn about so as always keep it locked in here on my channel and I’ll see you in the next video
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Muscle Growth: Fast Reps vs. Slow Reps- Thomas DeLauer… Let’s talk about the good, the bad, and the ugly of the negative workout. Eccentric contractions, we hear a lot of people on the internet talking about how eccentric training, focusing on the negative portion of a rep, is going to get you better results. Well, there is some very positive science pointing towards negative training, but we want to focus on the big picture and some practicality here. Today, we’re talking about the different styles of training. But I want you to understand the mechanics of how a muscle actually contracts because then everything will make some sense.
First and foremost, let’s get the basics out of the way. You have two phases of muscle contraction: concentric and eccentric. I’ll make it simple for you. Concentric is when you’re flexing. Eccentric is when you are relaxing, but you’re still under load. Now, what we have to look at is what actually is happening with muscle fibers. I’m not going to go into exquisite detail here, but basically what we need to understand is we have these filaments. We have these long filaments that are part of the muscle. What happens is we have specific parts of the muscle that have little hook-like things. I want you to visualize hooks like this, okay? What happens is, when you’re overlapping your muscles, when you’re actually starting to contract, you’re overlapping these little fibers. When you first start to overlap, you only have a couple of hooks. But as you start to contract more, the muscles slide over one another, and you have more hooks that are able to make contact with each other. When you’re at the peak contraction, halfway through, you have the most hooks making contact with each other. This means that you get the most strength. That’s why you have the most strength at the mid-range of a movement.
For example, a bicep curl, as I’m flexing, I’m going to have good strength right here. But what happens after that? What happens when you go past mid-range? Well, it looks something like this. You’ve slid over. You didn’t have much traction. Now you have full traction, but now you’ve gone so far that you don’t have traction anymore, so you’ve gone beyond it. You go from no traction, lots of traction at the mid-range, and no traction again at the end. That’s why you get weaker at the very top of a movement. Think about a bench press. Kind of weak here, then you’re really strong here, and then, as you get to the top, you kind of get weaker again. It’s because the muscle fibers are contracting beyond where they can actually overlap each other. Now, when we look at concentric contractions, you only have that peak maximal contraction halfway through the movement. But eccentric contractions are very interesting because eccentric contractions are on the way down. Generally speaking, you’re going to have an eccentric contraction when you’re still under load, so that means that the muscle fibers are engaged, and they’re actually getting that maximal load through the entire movement on the way down versus you having to exert force and actually get these little hooks to grab. Now you have all these hooks grabbing each other as you’re letting the weight down.
Now, when you’re actually looking at the eccentric contraction too, you have more neural activation. Why? Because there’s a lot of stability that occurs, and there’s a lot of different muscle fibers that have to activate because you are being “overwhelmed” by the weight. The whole idea here with eccentric contractions is you are allowing the weight to overwhelm the muscle because you are letting it win. You’re letting it down. That requires a lot of neural activity. But what they’ve actually found is that you exert about 20% more force, you generate 20% more force on the negative contraction than you do on the concentric, on the up movement. That’s simply, again, because the amount of the actual filaments that have to get activated and overlap to control a heavy weight on the way down. Now, the other thing we have to factor in is, when you are letting a weight down in that concentric motion, that’s where the damage occurs. You don’t actually break down and tear muscle fibers on the concentric. In fact, you’re just kind of working them.
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2) Hortobágyi T , et al. (n.d.). Adaptive responses to muscle lengthening and shortening in humans. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from
3) Skeletal Muscle Remodeling in Response to Eccentric vs. Concentric Loading: Morphological, Molecular, and Metabolic Adaptations. (n.d.). Retrieved from /