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Ways to Turn Belly Fat into Body Heat (brown fat activation) – Thomas DeLauer
One study, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, looked at 12 young men with lower-than-average amounts of active brown fat who were asked to sit in a 63-degree Fahrenheit room for two hours a day over the course of six weeks
They burned an extra 108 calories in the cold compared with normal indoor temperatures – after six weeks their bodies were burning an extra 289 calories in the cold, prompting researchers to hypothesize that the exposure to lower temps increased the activity of a gene that converts white fat to brown
Why This Is
A study published in the journal Nature found that low temperature exposure causes stem cells to form brown fat instead of white fat
Specifically, to induce adipocyte browning using bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), there is a temperature differentiation at 32 °C instead of 37 °C (lowered from 37 to 32 degrees)
The low temperature promoted browning in adipogenic cultures, with increased adipocyte differentiation and upregulation of adipogenic and thermogenic factors, especially UCP1
Under certain circumstances, white fat can be converted into brown fat
In a study published in Nature, researchers exposed groups of mice to sixteen weeks of intermittent fasting – the design saw the animals being fed for two days, followed by one day without anything to eat and their calorie intake was not adjusted otherwise
Four months later the mice in the fasting group weighed less than those in the control group who continued to eat the same volume of food
The lower body weight of the mice in the fasting group was not the only effect – the fasting regime helped lower fat build-up in the white fat by increasing the brown-like fat of mice on the high fat diet
*Fasting-induced adipose-VEGF induces M2 macrophage activation, which triggers WAT browning*
A study published in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology found that a keto diet increases brown adipose tissue mitochondrial proteins and UCP1 levels in mice
Mice were put on either a keto diet or a regular chow diet – in the keto group, blood glucose levels were 30% lower while D-β-hydroxybutyrate levels were about 3.5-fold higher
Median mitochondrial size in the interscapular BAT (IBAT) of the KD group was about 60% greater, whereas the median lipid droplet size was about half of that in the chow group. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins were increased (1.5–3-fold) and the uncoupling protein 1 levels were increased by threefold in mice fed the KD
AMP levels were 60% higher in the KD group and cAMP response element binding protein was 2.5-fold higher, suggesting increased sympathetic system activity.
demonstrate that a KD can also increase BAT mitochondrial size and protein levels.
The KD increased markers of sympathetic activity (cAMP and CREB levels) in the BAT of the mice.
A study published in Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome looked at the effects of aerobic training (15) vs HIIT (15) in female adolescents
The session of aerobic exercise included cycling at 65% of their peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 40 min. In the HIIT group, exercise included six bouts of 1 min at 85–95% HRpeak separated by 1 min of recovery
Levels of expression of irisin in skeletal muscle increased significantly after a session of HIIT (p less than 0.05), while aerobic exercise no effect on irisin levels
Exercise causes muscle cells to release a protein hormone called irisin – Irisin acts upon white fat to alter it by giving it properties of brown fat by increasing the number of mitochondria within the white fat cells, changing the color of the fat cells to beige cells – essentially mimicking brown fat’s effects
A study published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications found that curcumin promotes browning of white adipose tissue in a norepinephrine-dependent way
Specifically, curcumin promotes β3AR gene expression in inguinal WAT and elevates the levels of plasma norepinephrine, a hormone that can induce WAT browning